Langston Hughes - The Life, Occasions, Works as Properly as Influence of a Versatile African-American Author

Langston Hughes stands as a literary and cultural translation of the political resistance and marketing campaign of black consciousness leaders equivalent to Martin Luther King to revive the rights of black residents fulfilling the ethos of the American Dream celebrated yearly in February by the top of April.

Hughes & # 39; The overriding sense of a social and cultural objective, certain to his sense of the previous, current and way forward for the Black America, pays tribute to his life and work as a lot to encourage us to maneuver ahead and ours Steps to do the best way we do Transfer ahead to create an awesome future.

Hughes can also be important, as he has spanned the genres: poetry, drama, novel, and criticism, every imprinting an indelible mark. At 21, he printed in all 4 (4) areas. For he at all times thought of himself an artist with phrases who would enterprise into each subject of literary creativity, for there have been readers for every little thing that meant a narrative, greater than a poem or lyrics meant multiple story, and Hughes wished obtain this individually and his fashion.

Above all, he thought of himself a poet. He wished to be a poet who may relate in poetry to the issues of his people who may very well be learn with out formal schooling or intensive literary backgrounds. Nonetheless, Hughes wrote and directed dozens of quick tales, together with a dozen kids's books, a Nationwide Affiliation for the Promotion of Coloured Peoples (NAACP), two volumes of autobiography, opera libretti, lyrics and so forth. Hughes was pushed by a pure religion in his versatility and the facility of his craft.

Hughes' dedication to Africa was actual and concrete in each phrases and deeds, and the truth that his Negro Nessie (albeit in a slight ray of hope) has sparked a need to problem these on the opposite aspect of the colour line who're reject:

My previous man is a white previous man

And my previous mom is black

My previous mom died in a pleasant huge home

My madman died in a hut

I'm wondering the place I'll die

Neither know nor be black?

His seek for his roots was stimulated when Hughes met in 1923 and heard how Marcus Garvey admonished Negroes to return to Africa to flee the wrath of the white man. Hughes then turned one of many poets who felt the jungle tom-toms hitting the Negroes. Pulse. Their verse took on a nostalgic temper, and a few even imagined that they integrated the rhythm of African dance and music into their verse, as we may really feel when studying this poem: "Danse Africaine":

The deep beating of the toms,

The sluggish beating of the toms,

Low ... sluggish

Gradual ... low -

Stir your blood


A lady with evening veil

Swirl gently into one

Circle of sunshine.

Whirls softly ... slowly,

Hughes was born in 1902 in Joplin, Missouri, and grew up in Lawrence, Kansas and Lincoln, Illinois. He then went to highschool in Cleveland, Ohio, and belonged to a small group of black individuals whom he was all of a sudden given from early in his life. Though he got here from a revered household, his childhood was interrupted by the separation of his mother and father not lengthy after his beginning. His father then emigrated to Mexico, the place he was attracted to realize the success that had escaped him in America. He had hoped that his pores and skin colour would play much less of a job in figuring out his future in Mexico. There he broke new floor. He had enterprise success and lived there the remainder of his life as a rich lawyer and landowner.

In distinction, Hughes & # 39; Mom lived the short-term life widespread to black moms, usually leaving her son within the care of her mom searching for a job.

His maternal grandmother, Mary Langston, had her first husband useless as a member of John Brown's band with Harpers Ferry and the second husband (Hughes grandmother) had additionally been a militant abolitionist. In Hughes, above all, a way of devotion instilled. Hughes efficiently lived with household mates, then family members in Kansas.

One other necessary household determine was John Mercer Langston, a brother of Hughes grandmother, who was probably the most well-known black Individuals of the 19th century.

Hughes later joined his mom, though she was now in Cleveland, Ohio together with his new stepfather. On the identical time, Hughes struggled with a way of devastation, aided by the neglect of his mother and father. He himself remembered that early on he was pushed by his loneliness to books and the great world in books. He was disillusioned together with his father's materialistic values ​​and the presumptuous perception that blacks, Mexicans, and Indians have been lazy and ignorant.

At Central Excessive Faculty, Hughes was excellent academically in addition to athletically. He wrote poetry and quick tales for the varsity's literary journal and edited the varsity yearbook. He returned to Mexico, the place he briefly taught English and wrote poetry and prose for publication in The Disaster, the NAACP journal.

Along with his father's assist, he arrived in New York in 1921 to allegedly attend Columbia College, nevertheless it was really Harlem to see. One in all his best poems, "The Negro speaks of Rivers", was simply printed within the disaster. His expertise was instantly found, although he rented solely a 12 months in Columbia, the place he was doing effectively, however by no means felt effectively.

He was uncovered to bigotry on campus. He was assigned the worst dorm due to its colour. All he may endure was instructing English literature. As a substitute of attending classes that bored him, he usually ran reveals, lectures, and readings sponsored by the American Socialist Society. It was then that he was first launched to the laughter and the ache, starvation and ache of blues music. It was the nightlife and tradition that attracted him to varsity. These candy, unhappy blues songs caught on him the extreme ache and longing he noticed round him, which he integrated into poetry like The Weary Blues.

To be able to assert himself as a poet and to assist his mom, Hughes took turns serving as a florist's supply man; a vegetable grower and a multitude on a ship on the Hudson River. As a part of a business steamship crew, he sailed to Africa. Then he traveled the identical approach to Europe, the place he jumped Ship in Paris to work for a number of months in a nightclub kitchen after which to hike to Italy.

In 1924, his poetry, which he had been engaged on all this time, confirmed the robust affect of blues and jazz. His poem, "The Weary Blues," which finest exemplifies this affect, sparked off his profession by successful First Prize within the Poetry Division of the 1925 Literature Competitors of Alternative journal and successful one other literary prize within the Disaster.

This landmark, the primary of any poet to make use of this fundamental blues type, is a part of a band of the identical title whose assortment displays the tough ambiance of Harlem nightlife. Most of his choices, equivalent to The Weary Blues, are kind of according to the phrasing and rhythm of blues music, a style that turned fashionable within the early 1920s with rural and concrete blacks. In him and different items like "Jazzonia", Hughes evoked the frenzied hedonistic and glittering ambiance of Harlem's well-known nightclubs. Poems of social commentary equivalent to "Mom to Son" present how exhausting blacks should face the myriad hurdles they face in life.

Hughes & # 39; Curiously, the primary influences as a mature poet got here from white poets. We now have Walt Whitman, the person who, by his creative violations of historical conventions of poetry, has opened the boundaries of poetry to new varieties equivalent to free verse. There's additionally the extremely populist white German emigrant Carl Sandburg, who as Hughes & # 39; "Leitstern" was respectable and led him to free verse and a radically democratic modernist aesthetic

However the black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, a grasp of each dialect and requirements, and Claude McKay, the black radical socialist, a Jamaican emigre who additionally wrote savvy poetry, stood for him because the embodiment of the cosmopolitan and but racially assured and devoted the black poet Hughes hoped to be. He was additionally taught to older black literary figures equivalent to WEB Dubois and James Weldon Johnson, who volunteered and supported him. WEB Dubois & # 39; Assortment of Pan-Africanist Essays Souls of Black Of us has vastly influenced many black writers equivalent to Hughes, Richard Wright and James Baldwin.

Such color-affirming pictures and emotions as with "individuals": The evening is gorgeous, / So the faces of my individuals and in "Dream Variations": Night time comes tenderly, / Black like me. Cherished his work with a wide range of African Individuals, for which he determined in writing.

Hughes had at all times proven his dedication to experiment as a poet and never slavishly comply with the tyranny of poetic verses and actual rhymes. He appeared like Watts Whitman and Carl Sandburg, preferring to put in writing verses that seize the realities of the American language because the "poetic diction," and tune his ear particularly to the range of the black American language.

"Weary Blues" combines these numerous components with the same old language of extraordinary individuals, jazz and blues music, and the normal types of poetry tailored to African American and American themes. In his adaptation of conventional poetic varieties, first to jazz, then to blues, generally utilizing dial-in, however in a means radically completely different from earlier writers, Hughes was effectively served by early experimentation with a unfastened type of rhyme usually to an ingenious rhythmic freedom waves verse:

Ma a Ma child

I've two choices

Two selections for de Buck!

Much more radical experiments with the blues type led to his subsequent assortment, Tremendous Garments to the Jew. Maybe his most interesting single verse, together with a number of ballads, Tremendous Garments was additionally his least wanted.

A number of reviewers in black newspapers and magazines have been harassed by Hughes. fearless and & tasteless & # 39; Evoking components of black subculture, together with their generally uncooked eroticism that has by no means earlier than been handled in grave poetry.

Hughes expressed his dedication to put in writing about such individuals and experiment with blues and jazz, wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." Printed in 1926 within the nation

We youthful artists ... need to specific our particular person dark-skinned self with out worry or disgrace. If white individuals are joyful, we're joyful. If not, it doesn't matter. We all know that we're lovely and likewise ugly. & # 39;

Hughes expressed his dedication to fearlessly, shamelessly and uninterestingly write in regards to the black lifetime of the decrease class and the individuals who opposed the resistance. He practiced a number of freedom experimenting with each blues and jazz.

Tom Tom is carrying and Tom Tom is laughing. If colourful individuals are joyful, we're joyful. If they don't seem to be disagreeable, it doesn't matter. We construct our temples for tomorrow, robust as we all know, and we stand on the mountains, free in ourselves.

Along with his dedication to such ideas defending the liberty of the black author, Hughes turned a beacon for younger writers who additionally wished to say their proper to discover and exploit supposedly degraded points of black individuals. He endowed the motion with a manifesto, skilfully arguing the need of racial pleasure and creative independence on this most memorable essay.

In 1926 Hughes returned to the traditionally black Lincoln College in Pennsylvania, the place he continued to publish poetry, quick tales and essays in mainstream and black-oriented magazines

In 1927, he based along with Zora Neal Hurston and different writers the literary journal Fireplace, which was devoted to African American tradition and aimed on the destruction of the older types of black literature. The corporate itself was quick lived. It was set on fireplace together with its editorial places of work.

Then a 70-year-old rich white patron entered his life. Charlotte Osgood Mason, who started to handle just about each facet of Hughes & # 39; Life and artwork. Her passionate perception in parapsychology, instinct, and people tradition was integrated into the oversight of Hughes' writing. Roman: Not with out Lauqhter drawing his youth in Kansas to painting the lifetime of a delicate black little one, Sandy, who grew up in a prestigious, middle-class, Central African home.

Hughes & # 39; The connection with Mason resulted in 1930 with an explosive finish. Honda's cash was harm and baffled by Mason's rejection, and he used it for a value to recuperate for a number of weeks in Haiti. From the extreme private misfortune and despair that the break had plunged him into.

Again within the US, Hughes turned sharp left. His verses and essays have now been printed in New Lots, a journal managed by the Communist Occasion. Later this 12 months he began touring.

The renaissance, lengthy since over, was changed for Hughes by a way of the necessity for a political wrestle and an artwork that mirrored this radical strategy. However his profession, in contrast to others at the moment, simply survived the top of this motion. He at all times produced his artwork in accordance together with his self-image as a totally skilled author. Then he printed his first collections, usually bitter and even embittering The Methods of White Of us.

Hughes & # 39; The primary concern now was the theater. Mulatto, his drama of racial mixing and the South, was the longest operating piece of an African American on Broadway till Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin within the Solar appeared within the 1960s. His dramas - comedies and ramas of home black American life - have been additionally fashionable with the black crowd. Utilizing improvements equivalent to theater generally, Hughes referred to as on audiences to anticipate the work of later avant-garde playwrights equivalent to Amiri Baraka and Sonia Sanchez. In his drama, Hughes combines city dialogue, vernacular, and a thematic emphasis on the dignity and energy of black Individuals.

Hughes wrote different performs, together with comedies equivalent to Little Ham (1936) and a historic drama, Emperor of Haiti (1936), most of which had solely modest successes. In 1937 he spent a number of months in Europe, together with a protracted keep in besieged Madrid. In 1938, he returned house to discovered the Harlem Suitcase Theater, his agitprop drama Don't need to be free? With a few of his poems he energetically combined black nationalism, blues and socialist admonition. In the identical 12 months, a socialist group printed a booklet of his radical verse, "A New Track."

With the start of the Second World Struggle, Hughes returned to the political heart. The Massive Sea, his first quantity of autobiographical work together with his memorable portrait of the Renaissance and his African travels, written in an episodic, barely comical fashion, together with his leftist sympathies hardly talked about.

In his ebook on Shakespeare in Harlem (1942) he sang the blues once more. Then again, this assortment, like one other, Jim Crow's Final Stand (1943), attacked racial segregation.

In poetry he revived his curiosity in a few of his historical themes and varieties, as in Shakespeare in Harlem (1942). Within the south and west he introduced individuals poetry. He learn his poems in church buildings and in faculties. He then sailed from New York to the Soviet Union. He belonged to a bunch of younger African Individuals who have been invited to a film about American race relations.

This filmmaker mission was unsuccessful however essential to bettering his quick tales. Whereas in Moscow, he was fascinated by the similarities between the character of DH Lawrence in a canopy story from his assortment The Pretty Woman and Mrs. Osgood Mason. Hughes was overwhelmed by the facility of Lawrence's tales and commenced to put in writing quick tales of him. On his return to the US. In 1933 he had bought three tales and commenced compiling his first assortment.

Maybe his finest literary achievement through the battle was writing a weekly column within the Chicago Defender from 1942 to 1952. The spotlight was an uncommon Harlem character named Jesse B. Semple or Easy and his trade with a loyal narrator in a neighborhood bar, the place Easy commented on numerous subjects, however most of all on race and racism. Easy turned Hughes' most well-known and beloved fictional creation. and one of many freshest, most intriguing, and perennial Negro characters in American fiction Jesse B Easy is a Harlem-Everyman whose bizarre means of addressing among the critical points that Hughes has raised, associated to Easy & # 39; exploits within the Quintessence "barely hid". Smart Idiot who captures expertise and uneducated insights, Black's frustration in America. His trustworthy and easy eye sees by the superficiality, hypocrisy, and delusion of white and black Individuals, each sensible and witty, however in some ways primarily race and girls.

His bebop-shaped poem Montage of a Dream Deferred (1991) tasks a altering Harlem, fertile with humanity, however in decline. The drastically deteriorated state of Harlem within the 1950s is in distinction to the Harlem of the 20s. The exuberance of nightlife and the vitality of the cultural renaissance are over. An city ghetto affected by poverty and crime has taken its place. A rhythm change corresponds to the change of tone. The mild patterns and delicate melancholy of blues music are changed by the abrupt, fragmented construction of postwar jazz and bebop. Hughes was attentive to what was occurring within the African-American world and what was coming. For that reason, this quantity of poetry mirrored the brand new and reliable new bebop jazz rhythms that emphasize the dissonance. They thus mirrored the brand new pressures that skilled black communities within the cities of the North.

Hughes & # 39; Dwelling an excessive amount of his life in foundations and attics introduced a number of realism and humanity to his writings, particularly his quick tales. So he stayed near his broad viewers as he moved figuratively by the foundations of the world the place his life is most dense and the place extraordinary individuals have problem discovering their means. Concurrently writing in attics, he rose to the lengthy perspective that enabled him to radiate a humanizing, beautifying, however nonetheless true gentle on what he noticed.

Hughes & # 39; Quick tales mirror his whole objective as a author. For his artwork was aimed toward decoding "the fantastic thing about his personal individuals," which he believed ought to both be seen or not made proud. In all of his tales, his humanity, his devoted and creative representations of each race and nation have been truthful - his profitable mediation between the beauties and the horrors of life round him all shine. Sure subjects, technical excellence or social insights are rising.

For instance, "Slave within the Block" reveals a easy however vivid story of the shortage of respect and even human communication between negroes and the upcoming and beauty whites.

Hughes additionally took the time to put in writing for youngsters who produced the profitable Popo and Fifina (1932), a narrative that starred with Arna Bontemps in Haiti. He has at all times printed a dozen kids's books on subjects equivalent to jazz, Africa and the West Indies. Pleased with his versatility, he additionally wrote a commissioned historical past of the NAACP and the textual content of a much-vaunted graphic story of Black America's The Candy Flypaper of Life (1955), by which he expertly judged pictures of Harlem by Roy DeCarava, mastered by Grasp , exploded reviewers, affirming Hughes' status for unsurpassed mastery of the nuances of black city tradition.

Hughes continually sought harassment for his hyperlinks to the left. In useless he protested that he had by no means been a communist who had made all connections. In 1953, he was publicly humiliated by Senator Joseph McCarthy when he was pressured to seem in Washington DC and formally testify his insurance policies. Hughes denied that he had ever been a Communist, however acknowledged that a few of his radical verses had been ill-advised.

Hughes profession suffers from it. Inside a short while McCarthy himself was discredited. Hughes now wrote extensively in I'm wondering how I stroll (1956), his much-acclaimed second quantity of autobiography. over his years within the Soviet Union. He turned rich, although he at all times needed to work exhausting for his prosperity. Within the 1950s he turned to the musical stage as he wished to repeat his nice success of the 1940s, when Kurt Weill and Elmer Rice had chosen him as a lyricist for his or her avenue scene (1947). This manufacturing was celebrated as a breakthrough within the improvement of American opera; For Hughes ended the seemingly limitless cycle of poverty by which he had been trapped. He purchased a home in Harlem.

On the finish of his life, Hughes was nearly universally acknowledged as probably the most consultant author within the historical past of African-American literature, and doubtless probably the most primitive of all black American poets. So he turned the widely known "Poet Laureate" of the Negro Race!

Based on Arnold Rampersad, an authority of Hughes:

A lot of his works celebrated the wonder and dignity and humanity of black Individuals. In contrast to different authors, Hughes loved the seemingly excessive esteem of his major viewers, the African American. His poetry, with its unique jazz and blues affect and robust democratic dedication, is nearly definitely probably the most influential individual written by an individual of African descent on this century. A few of his poems; "Mom to Son" are digital hymns of black American life and aspiration. Solely by his performs he was in a position to safe a spot in African American literary historical past. His character Easy is probably the most memorable particular person determine that emerged from black journalism. The Negro artist and the racial mountain & # 39; is timeless and sees it as an evidence of the fixed dilemma towards the younger black artist, between the forces of black and white tradition & # 39;

Free of the examples of Carl Sandburg's free verse Hughes & # 39; Poetry at all times sought absolute route and ease. On this regard, the assertion that he has nearly by no means revised his work as in the event that they have been romantic poets who consider and present that poetry is a spontaneous abundance of feelings.

Like Walt Whitman, Hughes' nice poetic forefather in America's poetry ..., Hughes believed within the poetry of emotion, within the energy of concepts and feelings that went past the technical craft. Hughes by no means wished to be a author who rigorously shaped rhymes and stanzas, dropping the emotional coronary heart of what he had got down to do.

His poems, with the unmistakable diction and cadenzas of Negro idioms in easy stanza patterns and strict rhyming schemes derived from blues songs, allowed him to seize the ambiance of the environment and the rhythms of jazz music.

He primarily wrote in two modes / instructions:

(i) texts about black life utilizing rhythms and renouncing jazz and


(ii) Poems from racial protest

Exploring the boundaries between black and white America. This contributes to the strengthening of black consciousness and racial pleasure, even the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance for its most militant a long time. Whereas they by no means refuse to cooperate with the white group, the poems that protest towards white racism are boldly direct.

In "The Negro speaks of Rivers," the easy direct and free verse makes it clear that Africa's dusky rivers circulation concurrently with the poet's soul as he attracts non secular energy in addition to particular person identification from his collective expertise. Ancestors Based on Rampersad, the poem "ought to be remembered that the syncopated beat that the captive Africans purchased with "right here discovered its first expression" in clapping arms, footsteps, drum rhythms of the human coronary heart (4-5) is as previous because the world. "

Hughes is best recognized for his dealing with of the chances of African-American experiences and identities. Like Walt Whitman, he has created an individual who speaks for greater than himself. His voice in "Me, too", for instance, absorbs the illustration of a complete race in his central consciousness as he complains:

I additionally sing America

I'm the darker brother.

I'm additionally America.

The "darker brother" celebrating America has a greater future when he's not banned by "society." The poem is attribute of Hughes' perception within the racial consciousness of African Individuals, a consciousness that displays their integrity and wonder, and on the identical time calls for respect and acceptance from others, particularly when: No person dares to say to myself: Eat within the kitchen.

This cussed resistance and optimism in coping with adversity is what Hughes & # 39; Life was centered on embracing him to outlive and attain regardless of the obstacles he confronted. as Rampersad confirms :.

Toughness was a key function of Hughes & # 39; s; Life. As a result of his life was exhausting. He definitely knew poverty and humiliation within the arms of individuals with way more energy and cash than he, and little respect for writers, particularly poets. Regardless of all his poverty and ache, Hughes remained on a steady keel. He was a gentleman, in some ways a mild man who was sympathetic and tender, however principally persistent.

Hughes' poetry reveals his heartfelt urge for food for all humanity, his existence on justice for all, and his perception within the transcendental prospects of pleasure and hope that create area as he needs in "Me too" all at America's desk ,

This deep love for the entire of humanity will be present in one in all his poems: "My individuals". Some strains have already been talked about:

The evening is gorgeous,

so the faces of my individuals,

the celebs are lovely,

so the eyes of my individuals

Good is the solar

Stunning are additionally the souls of my individuals

Arnold Rampersad's final phrase about Hughes' humanity is rooted in three important attributes: his tenderness; Generosity and his humor.

Hughes was additionally tender. He was a person who liked and liked different individuals. It was very exhausting to search out somebody who had recognized him and would say one thing ugly about him. Individuals who knew him couldn't bear in mind a lot, which he didn't like. Clearly, he radiated pleasure and humanity and so he was remembered after his dying.

He liked the corporate of individuals. He needed to have individuals round. He wanted her to counteract the important loneliness he had early on in his coronary heart and from which he made his literary artwork.

Hughes was a person of nice generosity. He was beneficiant to the younger and poor, the needy; He was even beneficiant to his rival. He generously made a mistake and gave to those that didn't at all times deserve his kindness. Nonetheless, he was prepared to danger ingratitude to assist youthful artists and younger individuals generally.

Hughes was a person of laughter, although his laughter nearly at all times got here within the presence of tears or the specter of tears. The titles of his first novel Not with out laughter and a group of tales that chortle to maintain you from crying. darauf hinweisen Im Wesentlichen glaubte er, dass das Leben vor ihm stehen muss - mit dem Wissen um seine unausweichliche Einsamkeit und seinen Schmerz, aber auch mit einem Bewusstsein für die Therapie des Lachens, mit der wir den Menschen angesichts der Umstände durchsetzen. Wir müssen uns an die Menschen wenden, und man sollte nicht nur eine erstaunliche Toleranz gegenüber den Leiden des Lebens haben, sondern auch den glücklichen Aspekt des Lebens überschwänglich vervollständigen.

Seinem Sinn für Humor wird erneut ein Schriftsteller aus Afrika zugeschrieben, der wie Hughes auch mit der Bekämpfung rassistischer Diskriminierung und Benachteiligung, Ezekiel Mphahlele, konfrontiert battle.

Hier ist ein Mann mit grenzenloser Lebensfreude ... Er hat einen unwiderstehlichen Sinn für Humor, und ihn zu treffen heißt, sich mit der Essenz menschlicher Güte zu konfrontieren. Trotz seines literarischen Erfolgs hat er sich den Respekt junger Negerautoren verdient, die ihn niemals unwillig finden wollen. Und doch ist er nicht herablassend. Im Gegensatz zu den meisten Negern, die berühmt oder wohlhabend wurden und in erstklassige Wohngebiete ziehen, lebt er weiterhin in Harlem, einem sinnlosen Negro-Ghetto, in einem Haus, das er mit Geld gekauft hat, das er als Lyriker für das Broadway-Musical Road Scene verdient hat .

Bei der Erklärung und Veranschaulichung des Zustands der Neger in Amerika, wie es seine erklärte Berufung battle, eroberte Hughes ihre Freuden und die verschleierte Müdigkeit ihres Lebens, die Monotonie ihrer Jobs und die verschleierte Müdigkeit ihrer Lieder. Dies gelang ihm in Gedichten, die nicht nur wegen ihrer Direktheit und Einfachheit, sondern auch wegen ihrer Wirtschaftlichkeit, Klarheit und Witz bemerkenswert waren. Ob er Gedichte aus rassischen Protesten wie "Harlem" und "Ballad of the Landlord" schrieb, oder Gedichte aus rassischer Überzeugung wie "Mom to Son". and & # 39; Der Neger spricht von Flüssen & # 39; Hughes battle in der Lage, Sprache und Formen zu finden, um nicht nur den Schmerz des Stadtlebens, sondern auch seine Prachtlebenskraft auszudrücken.

Weiterführende Literatur:

Gates, Henry, Louis und Mc Kay Nellie, Y. (Gen. Ed) The Norton

Anthologie der afroamerikanischen Literatur, NW Norton & Co; New York und London 1997

Hughes, Langston, "Der Negerkünstler und der rassische Berg" 1926. Rpt

in Nathan Huggins Hrsg. Stimmen aus dem Harlem Renaissance Oxford

College Press, New York, 1976

Mphahlele, Ezekiel, "Langston Hughes" in Introduction to African

Literatur (Hrsg.) Ulli Beier, Longman, London 1967

Rampersad, Arnold, Das Leben von Langston Hughes Vol. 1 & 11 Oxford

College Press, N. York, 1986

Trotman, James, Langston Hughes: Der Mann, seine Kunst und seine

Fortwährender Einfluss Garland Publishing Inc. N.

York & London 1995

Schwarze Literaturkritik

Der Oxford Companion zur afroamerikanischen Literatur, Oxford College Press, 1997

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